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Characteristics of natural glues

Casein Type adhesives

Applications • tropical woods;
• structural lamination,
• panel and flush door covering;
• may produce glue lines with a thick appearance.
Availability/ using • requires careful two-step mixing with water.
Typical working time # 15 to 45 minutes
Clamp time # 2 to 8 hours
Cured working properties • cures hard, sands readily, but dulls cutting tools rapidly;
• permanently stains the surface of high-tannin woods such as oak and mahogany.
Cured properties • excellent strength, rigidity and durability;
• highly creep resistant;
• some gap-filling ability.
Long-term properties • high-grade formulas have good moisture and solvent resistance;
• low-grade formulas have lower moisture resistance;
• can be subject to bacterial and fungal attack unless preservative is added.

# depending on glue formula, moisture content of workpieces, working temperature, atmospheric humidity etc


Fish Type adhesives

Applications • light-duty, wood-to-wood bonding;
• natural nonwood materials (such as cloth, metal and bone) to wood.
Availability/ using • ready to use;
• can be coloured with dyes etc;
• refrigerate to extend shelf life.
Typical working time # 15 to 30 minutes
Clamp time # 2 to 4 hours
Cured working properties • cures hard;
• machines and sands well;
• compatible with stains and finishes;
• reversible with water.
Cured properties • good strength, rigidity and creep resistance;
• not as strong as hide glue.
Long-term properties • Excellent heat and solvent resistance;
• poor water resistance;
• glue layers desiccate with time and becomes brittle.

# depending on glue formula, moisture content of workpieces, working temperature, atmospheric humidity etc


Hide Type adhesives

Applications • good combination of versatility, compatibility and strength;
• edge- and face-gluing, assembling joints; veneering, repairing and bonding natural nonwood materials to wood.
• also used for sizing, a wood conditioner and a grain filler.
Availability/ using • granules -mix with water and heat to 140°F before use;
• ready-to-use liquid hide glues also available;
• add water if glue thickens;
• add urea or salt to retard gel rate;
• can be coloured with dyes etc.
Typical working time # 1 to 10 minutes
Clamp time # 10 to 90 minutes
Cured working properties • Cures very hard;
• machines and sands well.
Cured properties • excellent strength, rigidity and creep resistance;
• thick glue layers can be brittle.
Long-term properties • resistant to moderate heat and moisture levels, despite reversibility;
• good solvent resistance and shock resistance;
• glue layers desiccate with time and becomes brittle.

# depending on glue formula, moisture content of workpieces, working temperature, atmospheric humidity etc


Rice & wheat paste adhesives

Applications • bonding porous, pliant materials (such as paper, cloth and leather) to wood;
• commercial formulas require no cooking and are easy to use.
Availability/ using • mix with water and cook before use (if required);
• add preservative to prevent mould growth;
• can be coloured with dyes etc.
Typical working time # 15 to 20 minutes
Clamp time # 3 to 6 hours
Cured working properties • Cures soft and flexible;
• Easily cut with hand tools;
• compatible with stains and finishes;
• reversible with water.
Cured properties • not strong enough for most structural wood-to-wood bonding.
Long-term properties • subject to bacterial and fungal attack unless preservative is added.

# depending on glue formula, moisture content of workpieces, working temperature, atmospheric humidity etc

 

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